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GDF Hubs

GBBC Digital Finance, together with its community of industry expert members, is driving the acceleration and adoption of digital finance to support the next era of digital commerce.

The GDF NFT Hub is a central resource of data, research, and market tools that addresses the key questions surrounding non-fungible tokens (NFTs). As the sector develops at pace, the Hub is designed to bring clarity to the subject, covering the areas that should be considered from a legal and regulatory perspective, as well as to present the new opportunities at play.

GDF is driven by its members to look at how we can help the digital asset community develop standards and best practices in new areas of activity. As new opportunities develop, we will continue to expand the NFT Hub.
If you would like your resource to be listed, or have further questions you would like us to cover, please get in touch.

Explaining NFTs

Understanding the building blocks and impact of NFTs

NFT: The Tokens That Could Change Our World

The article highlights the application and current usages of NFTs giving a more visual/practical description of NFTs as a whole.

What is ERC-721? A guide to the Ethereum NFT Token Standard

Article breaking down what ERC-721 is and also highlighting it's functionality, purposes, and benefits.

Demystifying Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs)

A thematic report prepared by the European Union Blockchain Observatory & Forum (a European Commission initiative). Covers the history of NFTs, the technology of NFTs, future challenges and policy recommendations.

The Non-Fungible Token Bible

OpenSea have published their extensive guide to NFTs, taking a look at everything from standardization, interoperability and provable scarcity, to the myths surrounding NFTs, their history, and the market size.

Nontechnical: What is ERC-721?

William Entriken provides a quick, accessible explainer on ERC-721 and its applications.

The fractionalization of NFTs will lead to better social tokens

Bryan Flynn explains the social value of NFTs, how fractionalization enables more contributors to creative works, and its relationship to social tokens.

Do you really own your NFTs?

“Ownership” is discussed a lot with regards to digital assets, but in the digital age, “ownership” can be a malleable term. This article explores the degrees of ownership, degrees of centralisation, data storage questions, and off chain solutions surrounding NFTs.

The Greatest NFT Film Ever Made

From the numbers to platforms and artists, the Defiant set themselves the goal of creating the most comprehensive guide to the world of NFTs - in a film.

NFT Canon

Another set of resources bringing together the world of NFTs, from blogs to podcasts, covering news, market data, and standards.

Market Data

Key market data on NFTs’, including trading volumes and overview of key NFT marketplaces

Understanding the cycles hype and value of NFTs

An explainer of how NFTs are valued, drivers of speculation, why they have value.

Top NFT tokens by market capitalisation provides a realtime list of the top NFT token by market capitalisation. Visit the page to find out the most popular categories and how each category is performing.

The 20 most expensive NFTs ever sold and why

Discover the most expensive NFTs that have ever been sold and why they gained so much traction.

NFT: A Market Overview

A dashboard overview of NFT markets by collectibles, metaverse, utility tokens,  art, sports, games, and DeFi.

NFT Wash Trading & Money Laundering

Chainalysis explore the potential risks of trading NFTs especially wash trading and money laundering.

NFT Marketplace

All the latest news regarding NFT marketplaces, ranging from Web3, video gaming, art & collectibles.

Assessing the value of an NFT

A guide to how NFTs are valued given that they do not follow typical asset valuation procedures. This post provides an in-depth understanding of the factors which can be used to assess the value of an NFT.

Art and Collectibles trading data

Trading volume charts on digital art and collectibles.

NFT Marketplaces

Overview of non-fungible token trading volumes, number of traders per NFT marketplace and more key metrics.

NFT Valuations

The University of Nicosia’s NFT Valuation tool sets out not only to establish a robust and defensible methodology for calculating Non-Fungible Token (NFT) market capitalizations on an ecosystem basis, but also to establish a robust and automated methodology for valuing individual NFTs with relevant confidence intervals.

Financial Markets

A Guide to using NFTs in Real Estate

This Forbes article is the perfect explainer on uses of NFTs in the virtual and physical real estate market.

Will the growth of NFTs change the trajectory of the banking and payments industry?

The article walks through the impact of NFTs and DLT on banks, and customers.

NFT: Financial use cases and regulatory considerations

This insightful report points out useful considerations for financial institutions and ways they can adopt NFTs to improve efficiency, transparency, and globalisation.

Are NFTs financial instruments?

The IFC summarises the tax treatement for NFT transactions, and whether or not we shoud consider them as financial instruments.

The Anatomy of NFTs from a Shariah Perspective

"Being digital does not disregard it from being an asset in Shariah, as the driving factor in being Māl (property) – and therefore a valid asset – is the ability to benefit from the asset in a reasonable manner." Read Amanah Advisor's overview of NFTs and Shariah.

The Rise of Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) and the Role of Copyright Law – Part II

Part ii of this chapter on NFTs covers where copyright meets blockchain, looking at how the technical characteristics of NFTs mean that NFTs so not easily match existing conceptions of ownership as they relate to digital objects, and the implications of this with regards to the transfer of copyright ownership.

Non Fungible tokens from a legal perspective

Tatiana Roberdo’s article takes a look at how to determine the jurisdiction and the respective rights of NFT creators and their buyers.


Could Bitcoing be the greatest ESG asset of all time?

Bitcoin mining is actually reducing carbon emissions on the whole. Mining bitcoin compared to mining gold produces less CO2 thus a bitcoin standard is preferred compared to a gold standard.

The climate controversy swirling around NFTs

Why NFTs may be doing more harm than good, and what are crypto-groups doing to ensure they are reminaing carbon neutral.

The environment impact of NFTs

This article educates and raises awareness of some climate risks of NFTs, and suggests how investors can be more environmentally friendly.

GDF Global Summitt: DA COP26

GDF Report on ESG in crypto. For reliable information on how crypto markets are impacting the envrionment.

How NFTs are creating social value

Forbes delves into the various manners through which NFTs could create social value, either through sustainability projects, communitties, or art.

NFTs for social impact

This LinkedIn article highlights how NFTs can be used to raise funding for social impact initiatives.

NFTs for social impact: Why artists are turning to charity

This article by the Medium walks through what current NFT artiists are doing to create social value. They explain how they utilise NFTs to help support causes such as endangered animals & diversity.

MiCA: A guide to the EU’s Proposed regulation for the Markets in Crypto-Assets

A comprehensive guide to MiCA (the EU’s Proposed Markets in Crypto-Assets Regulation). While Decentralised Finance (defi) and non-fungible tokens (NFTs) are largely left alone by MiCA, NFTs with fractional ownership fall under the law’s remit. This report is usually updated monthly and can provide a good overview until the final text is approved.

NFT – Legal Token Classification

A report prepared by the European Union Blockchain Observatory & Forum (a European Commission initiative), highlighting NFT characteristics and providing an extensive overview of the legal classification and frameworks across the globe. Covers how different regulatory jurisdictions (EU, Germany, Italy, Latin America and the Common Law) have begun to tackle NFTs.

Shariah Principles of Royalties in NFTs

In NFTs, royalties can be built into the code by way of smart contracts, a method of pushing a portion of the resale proceeds back to the original creator. Amanah Advisors breaks down royalties, intellectual property and intangible rights in Shariah, and how this fits in with NFTs.

Understanding Ownership and Possession in NFTs from a Shariah Perspective

Read Amanah Advisors' overview of possession, ownership, and NFTs from the perspective of Shariah.

NFT’s: the Global Legal Impact

As well as covering ownership and rights, Clifford Chance’s report looks at how jurisdictions across Europe, America, and Asia are developing approaches to NFTs.

Legal challenges of NFTs

CMS Law-Now’s article looks to establish a legal framework for NFTs as a new asset class taking into account licensing obligations and copyright issues with respect to the digital original piece.

Copyfraud and Copyright Infringement in NFTs

Andres Guadamuz does his best to cover the many questions that emerge surrounding copyright and NFTs as the industry evolved. This blog looks “under the hood” of minting NFTs and what happens when copyfraud happens in NFTs.

The EU explains MiCA 2023

An executive summary of Market in Crypto-Assets regulation as outlined by the EU.

Five legal considerations for businesses taking a lead on NFTs

This articles answers 5 important questions from the business perspective, on how best to adopt NFTs within the guidelines of the legal framework.

Regulatory updates on NFTs

An interactive hub with a timeline of the progression of regulation of NFTs in multiple jurisdictions.

Regualtion of NFTs in the EU

This article outlines the current state of regulation in the EU of NFTs and clearly defines that MiCA does not cover the NFTs as they are non-fungible, it explains this in more detail.

Response to the DCMS committee call for response: NFT and the blockchain

A UK Parliament response document outlining the regulatory considerations and approach to regulation the UK takes regarding NFTs.

Protocol Standards

Deeper understanding of specific protocol standards, with a particular focus on ERC-721

ERC-721 Ethereum Standards

The Ethereum Developers Reosurce website has a host of resources about ERC-721; what it is, applications, and popular examples.

Constructing an ERC-721 Token Contract

Explains how to create an ERC-721 contract.

EIP-721: ERC-721 Non-Fungible Token Standard

A standard interface for non-fungible tokens, also known as deeds.

NFT Token Standards

Within their NFT Bible, OpenSea have also included a explainer on NFT protocol standards, explaining how developers guarantee that the asset will behave a certain way.

NFTs And Creativity

Understanding the value of NFTs in creative industries, like art and gaming

How gamers are embracing NFTs

Medium explains the potential ways gamers can use NFTs to create a unique in-game experience, create a sense of community and he;p gaming developers.

Are NFTs the Future of the Art World?

Motiva, a digital art platform, discuss the emergence of NFTs and what it has meant for the art world. This article also discusses the possibilities for new and current art collectors in the NFT space.

Monetization for Gamers in the New Cryptoeconomy

Realigning the economic relationships between game developers and their player base.

Into The Void: Where Crypto Meets The Metaverse

The role of crypto in the emergence of a new Open Metaverse, in which individuals are able to “participate in an extensive virtual economy with profound societal impact.”

Digital Artwork

A look at the Christie's auction of Beeple's digital art piece and the doubts that arise from introducing a new art form in a legacy art institution.

Musicians Meet Audio NFTs

Musicians leveraging audio NFTs to create new revenue streams.

‘Animal Crossing: New Horizons’ and the limits of today’s game economies

How gaming is providing a new platform for community economics.

NFTs, digital art, and the value shift between IRL and virtual life

How crypto’s pop culture moment during the pandemic is pushing Gen-Z to use NFTs to create the 'modern Marvel'.

Community Questions

What are your key questions on NFTs? What areas should be considered in the development of the NFT sector?